Cardiovascular Disorders

Cardiovascular Disorders

Discussion: Cardiovascular Disorders

Veins and arteries are vital elements of the cardiovascular system. They carry the blood supply through the body and are essential for proper function. Sometimes veins and arteries malfunction, resulting in cardiovascular disorders. Malfunctions of arteries and veins are similar to malfunctions of a water hose. Consider the structure and function of a hose. A tap releases water, which then travels through the hose and comes out the other end. If the hose has been dormant for several months, dirt and rusty particles might build up inside, resulting in a restricted flow of water. Similarly, buildup of plaque inside the coronary arteries restricts blood flow and leads to disorders such as coronary heart disease. This disease is one of the most common cardiovascular disorders, and according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (2011), is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. In this Discussion, you examine the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders such as coronary heart disease.

What are the cardiovascular Diseases?

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders that affect the heart and blood vessels. They include conditions that affect the coronary arteries (the vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle), the brain (stroke), the peripheral arteries (arteries supplying blood to the limbs and organs), and the heart valves.

Some of the most common types of CVDs include:

  1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is a condition in which the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.
  2. Heart failure: This is a condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs.
  3. Arrhythmia: This is an abnormal heartbeat, either too slow, too fast or irregular.
  4. Stroke: This is a condition in which the blood supply to the brain is interrupted, leading to brain damage.
  5. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This is a condition in which the arteries that supply blood to the limbs and organs become narrowed or blocked.
  6. Aortic aneurysm: This is a condition in which the walls of the aorta (the body’s main artery) weaken and bulge, increasing the risk of rupture.

CVDs are among the leading causes of death worldwide, and risk factors for developing them include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of CVD. It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle and to seek medical advice and treatment if you have any symptoms or risk factors for CVD.

To Prepare

· Review this week’s media presentation on alterations of cardiovascular functions, as well as Chapter 24 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders.

· Select one patient factor: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Consider how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders.

· Select one of the following alterations of cardiovascular disorders: peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or dysrhythmia. Think about how hypertension or dyslipidemia can lead to the alteration you selected.

Post a description of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders, including how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology. Then, explain how hypertension or dyslipidemia can lead to the alteration you selected for patients with the factor you identified.

  • Chapter 23, “Structure and      Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems”

This chapter examines the circulatory system, heart, systemic circulation, and lymphatic system to establish a foundation for normal cardiovascular function. It focuses on the structure and function of various parts of the circulatory system to illustrate normal blood flow.

  • Chapter 24, “Alterations of      Cardiovascular Function”

This chapter presents the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of various cardiovascular disorders. It focuses on diseases of the veins and arteries, disorders of the heart wall, heart disease, and shock.

  • Chapter 25, “Alterations of      Cardiovascular Function in Children”

This chapter examines cardiovascular disorders that affect children. It distinguishes congenital heart disease from acquired cardiovascular disorders.

  • Chapter 11, “Cardiovascular      Disorders: Vascular Disease”

This chapter begins with an overview of the vascular component of the cardiovascular system and how the cardiovascular system is normally regulated. It then describes three common vascular disorders: atherosclerosis, hypertension, and shock.

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